-eVsfx1subjunctiveHagone.He/she doesn't/didn't sleep.NanigoneI'll sleep.Sigonire male.I couldn't sleep at all.Nagonire.I couldn't sleep.Nani vedi nagonire.It would have been good if I had slept.(Hita) Kagone!Go sleep (somewhere else)!Natogola nigone.I would like to sleep.Sono unisezigire!Don't make fun of me!Mshawaire!Forgive him/her!Michal aunga eze apike mbwani?What does Michal want to come and cook?Simtuma Kaziye asuntre i viya.I sent Kaziye to wash the dishes.Waunga miye nidyamanye au Jan adyamanye?Do you need me to do it or Jon to do it?Bau diya dikunga didye mnyau dina hakiri.The hyena that wants to eat the cat has smarts.Mabau yadya yakunga yadye u mnyau yana hakiri.The hyenas that want to eat the cat have smarts.This suffix replaces unmarked indicative -a in virtually all situations where the verb action has not occured or is not actually occuring, e.g., future, negative, irrealis, specific imperatives with the object marked on the verb (except when the object is ni- 'me' cp. ntongera! 'mimic me!', mtongere! 'mimic him/her!', chitongere! 'mimic us!', watongere! 'mimic them!') . It is also used in relative clauses.2relative clause markerWano wose wekale hano ni wawandikadyi.All of these [people] who are sitting here are writers.Kabuga kadya kaguluke nake msanga.The rabbit that ran away was brown.Wantru wadya wehiye wafa.The people who were bad died.Mtru yuno nikahate kafa.This person that I hate died.Wira udya nitogole usira halaka.The song that I like ends fast.Nnyani adyamanye?Who is it that did it?Nnyani akupendire?Who is it that loved you?
e (ne, eri)VLocSt NG11is(Yeye) e kuhi? -- E kudya.Where is he/she? -- He/she is over there.Yeye e kwe kazi.He/she is at work.Tate e kuzimu.Dad's in the ghost realm.Shetani e mndani mwe nari.Satan is there in hell.E mwe dyela.He/she is in jail.Mwanangu e kuhi? -- E hano.Where is my child? -- He/she is here.U mwana e bule.The child is naked.E vihi? -- Faya.How is he/she? -- Good.Mamnyako e viyi? -- Faya.How is your mother?E vihi u mwana? -- Faya.How is the child? -- Good.Mveverwa we zi nyuchi e mdani mwe spitali.The person attacked by a swarm of bees is in the hospital.Mwaliko e mwe nyumba.Mwaliko is in the house.Siteyi e bila chizazi; kwa ivo hena mwana, hata yumwenga.Siteyi is barren; therefore she doesn't have a child, not even one.Mgosi yuno e chihezi.This guy is being foolish.Samini Mnungu eyuko.I believe God is there (= exists).He kuli.He/She is not there.Kumanya ivo eri. / Humaniyize ivo eri.You know how he/she is. / You don't know how he/she is.An intrusive y occurs between e and uko fusing them (eyuko).The relative stem is eri 'where he/she is/was'.2wasNe mdani mwe Sauthafrika miyezi mtandatu.She was in South Africa six months.Bush ne Bhoizi.Bush was in Boise.Ne Bhoizi mwaka mwenga.He was in Boise one year.Nani Bhoizi mwaka mwenga.I was in Boise one year.
e- (edyi-)-Vpfx1selfSelurmiza.I hurt myself.Kwelumiza.You hurt yourself.Kelumiza.He/she hurt himself/herself.Selava.I took myself out.Sebhufiya barfumo.I sprayed perfume on myself.Mhina anefenyeza gari dyakeMhina himself is bragging about his car.This is a reflexive prefix used for all person and numbers.2selvesChelumiza.We hurt ourselves.Mwelumiza.You hurt yourselves.Welumiza.They hurt themselves.Nyuchi zedyamanyiza uchi.Bees make honey for themselves.
Ebho< SomNPropEboEbho ana madyarifa mengi na ndoni za kulowera mallahi.Ebo has a lot of fishing nets and fishing boats.man's name
edhiNG5blameYeye hana edhi na mtru.He has no blame with anybody.See: kudhira.
*edi (chedi, dyedi, hedi, iyedi, kedi, kwedi, mwedi, vedi, wedi, yedi, ywedi, zedi)Adj1goodMwaliko, wi wedi. NG1Mwaliko, you are good.Mwaliko ni wedi.Mwaliko is good.Mwaliko si wedi.Mwaliko is not good.Nasionekana wedi.I looked good.Si wedi.I'm not good.Mame ni mpikadyi wedi.Mom is a good cook.Mwalimu wangu ni mshauri ywedi.My teacher is a good advisor.Wantru wadya a wedi wafa.Those good people died.Wali udya nanidire ni wedi. / Wali udya nidire nani wedi. NG2That rice I ate was good.Sitogola matunda yano yedi. NG3I like these good fruits.Ino ni raja yedi. NG5This is a good hope.Kudya ni kusoma kwedi. NG8That is a good reading.Kuseka ni kwedi.To laugh is good.Kuchenula ni kwediTo smile is good.Aho uchimale si hedi male. NG9Right there where you stand is not good at all.Uko mwiri i kwedi male. The place where you are is not good at all.Kulima ni kwedi mwe Marikani.Farming is good in America.2niceAunga nyumba yedi.She wants a nice house.Chitogola wantru wano a wedi.We like these nice people.Simpenda mtu yuno u ywedi.I love this nice person.Simtowera yeye kwasababu nasi wedi male.I hit him for her because he wasn't nice at all.Mtu yudya u ywedi kafa.That nice person died.Namdira chinyula kwa sababu ana gari dyedi.I'm envious of him because he has a nice car.Ni mwedi.It's nice in here.3greatMgosi yudya ni ywedi.That man is great.Kushukurana ni kwedi kwa binadamu.Thanking each other is great for human beings.Hewa za dyero ni zedi.Today's weather is great.4prettyMwana chiche yuno ni ywedi.That girl is pretty.5beautifulMsanga uno ni wedi.This land is beautiful.Chereko ni chedi.Birth is beautiful.6honestMtu yudya chitogole ni wedi.That person that we like is honest.(Miye) ni wedi.I'm honest.Wi wedi.You're honest.(Yeye) ni wedi.He/she's honest.Chi wedi.We're honest.Mwi wedi.You all're honest.(Wowo) ni wedi.They're honest.7properKama weye wi mdaiywa, waungigiwa ulonge luga yedi.If you are a debtor, you need to speak proper language.8perfectMiye na Jon mhagato wetu nani wedi.Me and Jon's carrying it together on the shoulders was perfect.Mwalimu wa kwe skulu milongere yake ni yedi.The speech style of the teacher at school is perfect.
efentri (waefentri)< Eng1NG1infantrymanMiye ni efentri.I am an infantrymanEfentri yuno ni mvindadyi wedi.This infantryman is a great ambusher.2NG5infantryDyero kwiza efentri ikuvinda mashufta.Today there came infantry (who were) ambushing bandits.
egu1AdvwishfullyEgu nagonire.I wish I could've slept. = I should've slept.Egu sagonire. / Egu sanigonire. I wish I hadn't slept. = I shouldn't have slept.Egu chagonire.I wish we could've slept. = We should've slept.Egu nalindire.I wish I would've hunted.Egu is an irrealis adverb used with subjunctive verbs in clauses expressing unreal situations, emphasizing wishfullness on the part of the speaker.2AdvwouldSibanwa ni i sheriya ama egu nikukome.I am constrained by the law; otherwise I would kill you.Egu nana mapesa, egu nigule nyumba.If I had money, I'd buy a house.Egu nana hakiri, egu nite koleji.If I had any smarts, I'd go to college.Egu namtogole, egu nimsole.If I loved her, I'd marry her.Egu nanitogole, egu nimsole.If she loved me, I'd marry her.Egu nana mbuzi, egu nichinje nigaluke na idi.If I had a goat, I'd butcher it and have a feast.In unreal conditionals, the conditional clause is marked with egu and the conditional prefix na-; the unreal main clause is also marked with egu.3Advmight Egu napatire mwana chiche.I might've gotten a girl.Sisaidiywa ni Mwaliko, male egu nife.I was saved by Mwaliko; otherwise I might have died.4Intrrgright?Sikukonga miye mwiko, egu?I wasn't the one who started it, absolutely not, right?
einaNG5type(s)Isi yawo imema misingi ya kila eina.Their country is full of every type of resources.Kuna eina nyingahi za zahabu? -- Imwenga.How many types of gold are there? -- One.See alternate pronunciation: aina.
-ek(a)1V > VI-ablesfxbe V-able / be V-ible-ik(a) > -ek(a) after e or o2V > VIsfx
eka< EngNG5acre(s)Ku kaya nachina eka kumi za matigiti.Back home we had ten acres of watermelons.China eka shano za mteza.We have five acres of peanuts.Honde ya eka alfu yawarabiyika.A farm of a thousand acres is irrigatable.Eka imwenga ni dharabhu ntratu ama nne.One acre makes three or four "darabu".
eke (kuleka)VletMboza niyo efisa he di tuwa eke awone ivo vikugaluka he njemo.Mboza then hid himself in the bush to let himself see what was happening with the parcel of land.
elfu< Arb 'alifNothousand (1000), one thousandHonde ya eka elfu yawarabiyika.A farm of a thousand acres is irrigatable.See alternate pronunciation: alfu.
elfu chendaNonine thousand (9000)Gari dyangu naditaga kwa elfu chenda.My car, I'm selling it for nine thousand.See alternative pronunciation: alfu chenda.
elfu kumiNoten thousand (10,000)Taraki dino sidigula kwa elfu kumi.This truck, I bought it for ten thousand.See alternative pronunciation: alfu kumi.
elfu kumi na shanoNofifteen thousand (15,000)I skulu yangu ya koleji, siisoma kwa elfu kumi na shano.My (college) school, I studied at it for fifteen thousand [in tuition].See alternative pronunciation: alfu kumi na shano.
elfu mbiriNotwo thousand (2000)Mwaka uno situmikira elfu mbiri za gasi.This year I've spent two thousand on gas.See alternative pronunciation: alfu mbiri.
elfu mbokoloNohundred thousand (100,000)Elfu mbokolo yafaya kwa kufunguira biyashara ndodo.One hundred thousand [dollars] is enough to open a small business.See alternative pronunciation: alfu mbokolo.