aDef NG1/3/7/9theA wana we bule.The kids are naked.Nadya a matunda.I'm eating the fruits.Mayonda yano yanidira a malembwe.These monkeys ate the zucchinis on me.Wanidira a malembwe.They ate the zucchinis for me.a kabuga / a wabugathe rabbit / the rabbitsSiserusa a mazi / a madyani.I boiled the water / the tea.Kanidala mwa (a) mayega.He touched me on the shoulders.Wabalanga a mazi.They spoiled the water.A kabuga sikadya miye.The rabbit, I was the one who ate it.In rapid speech mwa + a > mwa.This is the augment or definite article for NG1, NG3 and NG7 plurals, as well as NG7 singular and NG9 hantu 'specific place'.
a-1Vpfx1definite present (progressive)Nechiro siva mtru akuugula.Last night I heard someone moaning with pain.Aunga nyumba yedi.She wants a nice house.Chalonga Chingereza.We're speaking English.Naunga nyumba.I want a house.Waona ngamira ningahi?How many camels do you see?Meso yake yaluma.Her eyes are hurting.Nadya a matunda.I am eating the fruits.Nasinya tivi.I'm watching TV.Azenga nyumba haluse vino.He is building a house right now.Chadya haluse vino.We are eating right now.Washegeya.They are working.Mbeho yazuka.The wind is blowing.Naita ku nyumba.I'm going home.Simba yazuka.The lion is leaping.Natogola nidye.I would like to eat.Ngwena idya yaerereka.That crocodile is floating.Weye, nakuona, kutozwa ni shetani.You, I see, are possessed by an evil spirit.Nawahinya wazana wano.I'm training these kids.Changamizana.We're endangering each other.A- 'he/she' + a- definite present > a- ; a- > k- / V___V; see past progressive ka-.A- occurs after the subject prefix and before an object prefix, if any. It is used much like the English present progressive but also in wider circumstances, namely, often with stative verbs.2???Sibwiza mphalamunyu, niyo yafakata.I caught a dragonfly, and then it got away.Ka- + ku- > aku-.a- in the example above is a mystery. See normal past progressive ka- and aku-.3habitual aspectNagona kila siku.I sleep every day.Nadya kila siku.I eat every day.Nanya kila siku.I shit every day.Changamizana kila siku.We endanger each other every day.
-aVsfxindicativeThis suffix is used on nearly all verbs in the indicative, meaning actual events in the present, or actual happenings in the past; see nearly all infinitives in ku-. Subjunctive -e is used in the future, negatives, irrealis, and specific imperatives where the object is marked on the verb (except when the object is ni- 'me' where indicative -a is used).
a (cha, dya, ha, ka, kwa, mwa, va, wa, ya, ywa, za)Prep1of-a contracts with following vowels: a + i > e, a + u > oThis preposition (like possessive pronouns and some adjectives) must agree with the preceding head noun. It is never said alone. See the forms above in parens for examples.2for3from4with5at6in
a- (ka-)-Vpfx1heNechiro siva mtru akuugula.Last night I heard someone moaning.Kegogomera na kambala, mpaka akafa.He choked himself with a rope, until he died.Meza ziya azidyamanye ziha.Those tables he made are bad.Mhando ana izi kulu.Mhando has a big voice.A- 'he/she' + a- definite present > a-.2sheAna balidi.She has a fever.Simgambira yeye akome idi tivi.I told her to shut off the TV.Akaguluke kamzengera nyumba yake.When she ran away, he was building her her house.
Abdhala< Som/ArbNPropAbdullahMze Abdhala na mkaziwe wafungana.Mr. Abdullah and his wife called the cops on each other.Gulo sigala usona kwa Mze Abdhala.Yesterday I asked Mr. Abdullah for his daughter's hand in marriage.Mze Abdhala ana pala.Mr. Abdullah is bald.Mze + Abdhala > Mzebdhala. See alternate pronunciations: Abdhula, Abdhulahi.man's name
Abdhi< Arb slaveNPropAbdiWaAbdhi waidi wafa; Abdhi yumwenga kahona.Two Abdis died; one Abdi got better.Abdhi kaita kwe skulu saa mbiri.Abdi went to school at eight.Note the plural proper noun in the example above.man's name
Abdhighadhiri< SomNPropAbdigadiriZina dya Dhadhiri dyamanisha Abdhighadhiri.The name (of) Dadiri means Abdigadiri [in Somali].The gh here represents a voiced velar fricative [ɣ]. It is not a normal Chizigula sound; it is found only in a few borrowings from Somali or Arabic.man's name
Abdhirahamani< ArbNPropAbdirahamaniSima dino disimbwa ni Abdhirahamani.This well was excavated by Abdirahamani.man's name
Abdhula ~ Abdhulahi< Som/ArbNPropAbdullahAbdhulahi ni nduguye Shabani.Abdullah is Shabani's relative.Abdhula kareta dyake dyegalwa ni ngombe mbiri.Abdullah's cart is pulled by two oxen.Bila shaka Abdhulahi kadaha kutungula mayembe na hongoli.Without doubt Abdullah knows how to pick mangos with a fruit picker.See alternate pronunciation: Abdhala.man's name
abhayo (waabhayo)< SomNG1sister (older)Abhayo nana wana wanne.[My] older sister had four kids.Abhayo wako ana minyau midi.Your older sister has two cats.Abhayo mwanawe etangwa Zawadi.[My] older sister's child is named Zawadi.Abhayo alagiza wantru zaidi.[My] older sister asks too much of people.When possessed by the first person singular, this noun normally takes no possessive pronoun at all. See: waabhayo.
abhobho (waabhobho)< SomNG1brother (older)Abhobho kegalwa msukule.[My] older brother was taken as a zombie.Abhobho kanilagiziza Dhadhiri akasinye baruwa zangu.[My] older brother asked Dadiri to check my mail for me.Mwanangu kamwenyezwa yembe ni abhobho yake.A piece of mango was bitten off for my baby by his older brother.mwana wa abhobhochild of [my] older brotherWhen possessed by the first person singular, this noun normally takes no possessive pronoun at all. See: waabhobho.
abiriya (waabiriya, maabiriya)< SwNG1passengerBasi dino dina abiriya yumwenga.This bus has one passenger.This noun has both NG1 and NG3 plurals, with no difference in meaning.
AbshiroNPropAbshiroAbshiro nyumba yake aitaga kwa bei rahisi.Abshiro is selling his house for a inexpensive price.man's name
adabuNG51disciplineChitabu cha Chislamu na cha Chikristo vose vachihinya adabu.The Quran and the Bible both teach us discipline.Mwana yuna hana adabu; kanichingira dole.This kid has no discipline; he gave me the finger.See: kudyera adabu.2mannersMwana yuno ana adabu.This child has manners.Mwana yuno adabu yake si yedi.This kid's manners are not good.Wana wano wana adabu yedi/zedi.These kids have good manners.Mwano yuno ana adabu mbaya.This kid has bad manners.3punishment(s)Wose wapata adabu zawo.They all got their punishments.
adabudharaNG51lack of disciplineMwana yuno ana adabudhara.This kid has a lack of discipline.2lack of manners
Adamu< ArbNPropAdamAdamu na Hawa wadya matunda.Adam and Eve ate fruit.Binadamu werekana kwa uwingi bada ya Adamu.Humans have reproduced in multitudes after Adam.See alternate pronunciation: Damu.man's name
adhuhuri< Arb dhuhrNG5prayer, second of the dayNaunga niduke adhuhuri.I want to pray the second prayer.See: dhuhuri.
adresiNG5address(es)Adresi yako ni mbwani? -- Adresi yangu ni "555 West Fairview".What is your address? -- My address is 555 West Fairview.
adui (maadui)NG11enemyYeye ni adui ywangu.He/she is my enemy.Shabani ni mbuyangu; Salimu ni adui ywangu.Shabani is my friend; Solomon is my enemy.Ana chinyulu na mnyawe ni adui.He who has envy of his associate is an enemy.This noun has its singular in NG1 but its plural in NG3. See: kaadui.2bad guyMwe filmi ino atore yuno ni adui.In this film, this actor is a bad guy.
adyabu (maadyabu)NG3miracleDyero siona adyabu.Today I saw a miracle.Bengi ino ukulu wake ni adyabu.This bank's size is a miracle.Chintu cha adyabu ni mbwani?What a thing of miracle[s] it is?
adyaliNG5accident(s)Waogeradyi waokowesa wantru wapatigwe ni adyali ya ndoni.Swimmers saved a lot of people who got in a boat accident.Sipatwa ni adyali ya gari nikaita "Colorado".I got in a car accident going to Colorado.Vuha dya wambo dyangu divunika kwa adyali ya gari.My femur got broken in a car accident.See: kupatigwa ni adyali, kupatwa ni adyali.
afande (maafande)NG1policemanKachimazwa ni afande kwasabu nahavaire mkowa mwe di gariHe was stopped by a policeman because he didn't wear a seat belt in the car.The singular is NG1 while the plural is NG3.
afathali< Arb tafathalAdjbetterMwana e vihi? -- Afathali haluse vino. / Haluse vino ni afathali.How's the child? -- Better right now. / Right now he/she is better.Here th is a voiced interdental fricative [ð].
AfghanistaniNG9AfganistanWavere wa Afghanistani wavala majalabibu yakuwadyera u moto.Women in Afghanistan wear burqas that make them warm.